which had to make an annual tribute of 40 katis of camphor.
In 1369, Sulu which was also formerly part of Majapahit, had successfully rebelled and then attacked Po-ni, looting it of treasure and gold.
Brunei has the second-highest Human Development Index among the Southeast Asian nations, after Singapore, and is classified as a "developed country".
According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Brunei is ranked fifth in the world by gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity.
The dissidents and their retinue tried to revive Srivijaya in a new country called Madja-as in the Visayas islands (an archipelago named after Srivijaya) in the Philippines.
One of the earliest Chinese records of an independent kingdom in Borneo is the 977 AD letter to Chinese emperor from the ruler of Po-ni, which some scholars believe to refer to Borneo.
A fleet from Majapahit succeeded in driving away the Sulus, but Po-ni was left weaker after the attack.
During the 15th century, Po-ni had seceded from Majapahit and then converted to Islam.
It has developed wealth from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields.Spain declared war in 1578, planning to attack and capture Kota Batu, Brunei's capital at the time.This was based in part on the assistance of two Bruneian noblemen, Pengiran Seri Lela and Pengiran Seri Ratna.The earliest recorded documentation by the West about Brunei is by an Italian known as Ludovico di Varthema, who also said the "Bruneian people have fairer skin tone than the peoples he met in Maluku Islands".On his documentation back to 1550; We arrived at the island of Bornei (Brunei or Borneo), which is distant from the Maluch about two hundred miles, and we found that it was somewhat larger than the aforesaid and much lower. Their colour is whiter than that of the other sort ... In the aftermath of the Indian Chola invasion of Srivijaya, Datu Puti lead some dissident datus from Sumatra and Borneo in a rebellion against Rajah Makatunao who was a Chola appointed local Rajah.
However, Islamic Brunei's power was not uncontested in Borneo since it had a Hindu rival in a state founded by Indians called Kutai in the south which they overpowered but didn't destroy.